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Salvatore Lanzetti

9,00


Salvatore Lanzetti.

Sonates a Violoncello solo e basso continuo

Emmanuel Balssa, violoncello.

Content

Emmanuel Balssa
  • Violoncelle baroque (Charles Riché 1990).
Alix Verzier
  • Violoncelle baroque (Bernard Prunier 1987).
Bertrand Cuiller
  • Clavecin (clavecin flamand d’ap. Ruckers, T. Crijnen 1999).
Sonata II opera quinta in sib magg
  • Allegro Assai.
  • Andante-(alla breve).
  • Allegro.
Sonata III opera quinta in re magg
  • Adagio Cantabile.
  • Allegro.
  • Graziozo.
Sonata V opera prima in la min
  • Adagio Cantabile.
  • Allegro.
  • Menuet Andante.
Sonata II opera sesta in do magg
  • Andante.
  • Chasse (allegro).
  • Fanfare.
Sonata XI opera prima in fa magg
  • Allegro.
  • Adagio-Allegro.
  • Rondeau Andante.
Sonata IX opera prima in la min
  • Adagio.
  • Allegro.
  • Andante.

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Descripción

Salvatore Lanzetti

Sonates a Violoncello solo e basso continuo

Salvatore Lanzetti is one of several violinist/composers who lived in Italy during the late Baroque period. In this era I consider a violinist as a performer on any of the instruments from the violin family, including the violincello. Some if these performers have particularly interesting personalities, both as players and as composers.

Although Lanzetti was remained unknown until the beginning of the 1980’s, in his lifetime he was regarded as a brilliant ‘cellist. Yet his virtuosity on the instrument never equalled his fame, which was eclipsed by the popularity of another great 18th century Napolian ‘cellist, Franceschiello.

In any case, the skills of Lanzetti as a ‘cellist were inimitable. He was born in Naples in 1709, under the name of Lancetti (in Torino, where he lived for many years, the ‘cello was pronounced violinzello, which explains the change in spelling of his name). He studied at the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto, the most renowned school for ‘cellists in the eighteenth century, where he received lessons from the greatest ‘cellists of the Neapolitan school. He later moved to Torino, where he became ‘cellist of the Court Theatre, and a member of the Capella Reale.

During his lifetime, Lanzetti toured Europe several times. The most celebrated visits were his travels to Paris in 1736, where he performed in the Concert Spirituels, and to London (1730 and in the 1740’s) and Hamburg (1751).

His compositions are exclusively for the ‘cello. He wrote three collections of sonatas for ‘cello and figured bass (published as Opus I, V and VI), a method, some transcriptions, and several sonatas which have been preserved only in manuscripts. Even his early works require a surprisingly high technical ability for his time, and they become even more demanding in his later compositions. This can be seen in the use of double stops and bow strokes in Opus 1, even in the highest range of the instrument. In Opus V, Lanzetti’s further investigations into the technical possibilities of the instrument are represented through the use of artificial harmonics, an extremely advance technique for his time. Opus VI is somewhat different, returning to a simpler and more constant technique. His

developments in technique were probably too audacious for the ‘cellists of the eighteenth century, and therefore not suitable for publication. While he continued with his technical investigations, particularly in the handwritten sonatas (such as “Porto Mahone”), the published Opus VI remained in “easy and elegant taste”, as indicated on the title page.

The form of Lanzetti’s Sonatas reflects the European tendency in the late-Baroque era for the gout rèunis. Dance movements are constructed in a French style, against an Italian, lyrical Adagio, and often an Allegro or occasionally a Fugue, as the central movement.

There is a particular characteristic in Opus I, that is, its division into three parts. The first part (Sonatas I-IV) is composed for amateurs, with the ‘cello remaining in the low register (it is written only in bass clef), and with simple technical demands. The second part (Sonatas V-VIII) has a medium level of difficulty, (the ‘cello line is uses both bass and tenor clef), and the third part (Sonatas IX-XII) requires exceptional technical abilities, and it is written in four different clefs (bass, tenor, alto and treble).

Sonata Opus I no. 5 in a minor, which has three movements, is the first of the second group of Sonatas. The first movement, Adagio Cantabile, uses double stops and arpeggi in the melody of the ‘cello. The second movement, Allegro, is in a minor and common time, and uses the sonata form. The first theme, in triplets, contrasts with the second theme, which is quite melodic and consists of semiquavers and syncopations. Its exposition finishes with progressions and fast scale patterns. The development of the movement is based on both themes, although in the exposition only the first appears, followed by new melodies. The minuetto is an Andante in a minor and in 3/8 time. It has an elegant theme in semiquavers, followed by a second and more cantabile theme. The trio has a pastoral, Arcadian character.

Also in a minor is Sonata Opus I no. 9, which belongs to the third group of Sonatas in the collection. It also has three movements, the opening of which is an Adagio (in a minor, common time), where dotted rhythms, arpeggi and double stops prevail. This is followed by an Allegro (in a minor, common time), which contains three different lines- two are played by the ‘cello, and the third line is underlined or overlapped by the basso continuo, forming chords. An Andante (in a minor, 3/8) closes the Sonata, in which Lanzetti graciously combines the character of a minuet with the form of a rondeau.

Sonata Opus I no. 11 in F major is one of the few sonatas consisting of four movements. The first movement, Allegro (F major, 2/4) is a piece requiring incomparable virtuosity. It uses sonata form, and has an extremely personal touch. The second movement, Allegro, (F major, 4/4), acts simply as a bridge between the first and third movements. The third is also an Allegro (d minor, 3/8), and takes the form of a fugue. The final movement, Andante (F major, 3/8) is a very unique rondeau, in which the main theme appears only once, in the opening.

Sonata Opus V no. 2 in Bb major consists of three movements. The opening is an Allegro Assai (Bb major, 3/4), where fast arpeggi, requiring difficult changes of string, are combined with more expressive elements. The second movement, Andante (g minor, 3/4 – 2/2), is divided into two sections, one in 3/4 and one in 2/2. The second section contains a bow stroke that Michel Corrette, in his ‘cello method, refers to as coup d’archet de Lanzetti. This is placed next to groups of outlined and tied over quavers, and is comparable to the present portarto. The third movement is a gracious Allegro (Bb major, 3/8), in which triplets and ornamented figures prevail.

The following Sonata, Opus V no. 3 in D major, is also made up of three movements. The opening Adagio Cantabile (D major, 3/4) has a quiet pace, which is provided by the constant quaver movement of the accompaniment. An Allegro (D major, 3/4) follows, in which harmonics are notated, amongst other technical difficulties. The final movement, Grazioso (D major, 3/4), takes the character of a minuet, and is in fact a theme with variations. In the fifth variation harmonics reappear.

Opus VI was published twice: in Paris and in London. Both editions are almost identical, apart from the order of the sonatas and the title. The English edition is entitled “Six solos after an easy and elegant taste”, which is very meaningful in its reference to character as well as to the technical level. It is dedicated mainly to amateur players, and not at all related technically to the sonatas of Opus I and V. Many gentlemen in London favoured playing the ‘cello, including the Prince of Wales. The publication of this collection probably had large financial rewards for the editor.

Sonata Opus VI no. 2 (no. 4 in the English edition) in C major is certainly the best example of the motive behind this final publication. Again, it consists of three movements. The opening Andante (C major, 3/4) uses the old sonata form. The second movement, Chasse (C major, 12/8), is a fast Siciliana in which the ‘cello is imitating the sound of horns. The Sonata finishes with a Fanfare (C major, 3/4), which takes a rondeau form. Here the ‘cello imitates the sound of trumpets through the use of chords and dotted rhythms.

Lanzetti ceased publishing music completely after this publication. Rather, he preferred to display his enourmous virtuosity in his handwritten sonatas or single pieces, amongst them his musical testament, the “Porto Mahone” sonata.

Renato Criscuolo

Información adicional

Estilo
Interpretación
Artista

Emmanuel Balssa

Salvatore Lanzetti

9,00


Salvatore Lanzetti.

Sonates a Violoncello solo e basso continuo

Emmanuel Balssa, violoncello.

Contenido

Emmanuel Balssa
Violoncelle baroque (Charles Riché 1990)
Alix Verzier
Violoncelle baroque (Bernard Prunier 1987)
Bertrand Cuiller
Clavecin (clavecin flamand d’ap. Ruckers, T. Crijnen 1999)

 

Sonata II opera quinta in sib magg
  • Allegro Assai.
  • Andante-(alla breve).
  • Allegro.
Sonata III opera quinta in re magg
  • Adagio Cantabile.
  • Allegro.
  • Graziozo.
Sonata V opera prima in la min
  • Adagio Cantabile.
  • Allegro.
  • Menuet Andante.
Sonata II opera sesta in do magg
  • Andante.
  • Chasse (allegro).
  • Fanfare.
Sonata XI opera prima in fa magg
  • Allegro.
  • Adagio-Allegro.
  • Rondeau Andante.
Sonata IX opera prima in la min
  • Adagio.
  • Allegro.
  • Andante.

Grabación realizada en la Iglesia de St. Pierre (Paris).

Toma de Sonido: Cecile Lenoir. Producción: José María Martín Valverde.

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Descripción

Salvatore Lanzetti

Sonates a Violoncello solo e basso continuo

Salvatore Lanzetti es uno de los numerosos violinistas-compositores que poblaron la Italia del Barroco tardío (entendiendo por violinistas a todos los interpretes de instrumentos de la familia del violín, incluidos los del violonchelo), alguno de entre los cuales son (presentan) personalidades muy interesantes tanto desde el punto de vista violonchelístico como del técnico-compositivo.

Autor completamente ignorado hasta los años Ochenta del siglo XX, Salvatore Lanzetti fue considerado en vida un brillante violonchelista, pero su fama no alcanzó ciertamente el nivel consecuente a su virtuosismo, eclipsado por la fama del Franceschiello, otra gran figura del violonchelo en el Nápoles del siglo XVIII.

De cualquier manera, la habilidad violonchelística de Salvatore Lanzetti fue inigualable: nacido en Nápoles hacia 1709, (su verdadero nombre era Lancetti, pero en Turín, la ciudad donde vivió muchos años, todos pronunciaban Violonzello), se formó en el Conservatorio de Santa María de Loreto, donde estudió con los más grandes violonchelistas de la escuela napolitana (la más importante escuela violonchelística en la Italia del XVIII), tras lo cual se marchó a Turín, donde se convertiría en violonchelista del Teatro de la Corte e intérprete en la Capilla Real.

Durante su vida, Salvatore Lanzetti llevó a cabo numerosas tournées, la más célebre en París (1736) donde intervino en los Concerts Spirituels, en Londres (1730 y en los años 40) y en Hamburgo en 1751.

Sus composiciones están dedicadas exclusivamente al violonchelo: escribió tres series de sonatas para violonchelo y bajo continuo (Opp. I, V y VI), un método, varias sonatas manuscritas y transcripciones: en sus obras desarrolla la técnica de su instrumento hasta niveles sorprendentes para la época, baste pensar en las dobles cuerdas y en los golpes de arco presentes en las sonatas del Op. I, donde desenvuelve todos los recursos técnicos de su instrumento, extendiéndolo hasta los registros más agudos. En el Op. V prosigue su investigación con la utilización de armónicos artificiales, técnica extremadamente virtuosa para su época, pero en el Op. VI vuelve a una técnica más asequible y consonante: probablemente los desarrollos de su técnica eran demasiado audaces para los violonchelistas del siglo XVIII, y se producían obvios problemas de publicación; por consiguiente, proseguiría su investigación técnica en las sonatas manuscritas, por ejemplo en la sonata Porto Mahone, pero su Op. VI será de an easy and elegant taste (como se indica en su frontispicio) para todos los violonchelistas.

La forma de las sonatas de Salvatore Lanzetti reflejan la tendencia de la Europa del barroco tardío a los gouts rèunis: a un Adagio de cantabilidad italiana, contrapone movimientos de danza al gusto francés, dejando en posición central muy a menudo algún Allegro, o más raramente una fuga. El Op. I presenta otra particularidad: se divide en tres partes, la primera (sonatas 1 a 4) destinada a los diletantes: el violonchelo permanece siempre en el registro más grave (toda ella está escrita en clave de bajo) y la técnica requerida es muy simple; la segunda (sonatas 5 a 8) presenta un nivel de dificultad medio (la parte violonchelística está escrita en clave de bajo y tenor), y la tercera (sonatas 9 a 12), escrita en clave de bajo, tenor, contralto y soprano, presenta un nivel de virtuosismo extremadamente elevado para la época.

La sonata Op. I, nº 5 en la menor, dividida en tres movimientos, es la primera del segundo grupo; el primer movimiento es un Adagio Cantabile, en el que la melodía del violonchelo se enmarca con frecuencia en figuraciones de arpegios y dobles cuerdas; el segundo es un Allegro (la menor, 4/4) en forma sonata en el cual Salvatore Lanzetti opone a un primer tema en tresillos, un segundo tema bastante melódico, con semicorcheas y síncopas, concluyendo la exposición con progresiones y rápidas escalas. El desarrollo se basa en ambos temas, pero en la reexposición aparece sólo el principio del mismo seguido de elementos nuevos, según un estilo típicamente italiano caracterizado por la continua búsqueda de nuevas melodías.

El minuetto es un Andante (la menor, 3/8), caracterizado por un tema elegante en semicorcheas al que sigue otro más cantabile. El trio presenta un carácter pastoral y arcádico.Igualmente en la menor es la sonata Op. I nº 9 que pertenece al tercer grupo de sonatas; y también se divide en tres movimientos: un Adagio (la menor, 4/4) en que predominan ritmos punteados con arpegios y dobles cuerdas, un Allegro (la menor, 4/4) que es en realidad una pieza a tres voces, la del tenor y bajo confiadas al violonchelo principal, y además la del bajo continuo que dialogan o se superponen en acordes; y, finalmente un Andante (la menor, 3/8) en el que Salvatore funde amablemente el carácter del minuetto con la forma del rondeau.

Información adicional

Estilo

Barroco Florido

Interpretación

Música de Cámara

Artista

Emmanuel Balssa