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A noble noyse of musicke

7,00


A Noble Noyse of Musicke

Vocal & Instrumental Master Works of the English Renaissance.
The Royal Wind Music.
Conductor: Paul Leenhouts

Content

John Bull (c.1562 – 1628)
  • In Nomine IV.
Thomas Tallis (c.1505 – 1585)
  • Iam Lucis Orto Sidere.
  • John Redford.
  • O Lux Beata Trinitas.
Richard Allison (c.1560 – c.1610)
  • Quadran Pavan.
Anónimo (England, s. XVI)
  • In Paradise.
  • I love unloved.
William Mure of Rowallan (1594 – 1657)
  • Kathrein Bairdie.
  • Gypsies Lilt.
  • Ouer the dek davie.
  • Corn gaird [es].
William Byrd (1543 – 1623)
  • Fantasia I a6.
  • Ave Verum Corpus.
Antony Holborne (c.1545 – 1602)
  • Galliard The teares of the muses.
John Coprario (c.1570 – 1626)
  • Fortune and Glory.
John Danyel (1564 – c.1626)
  • Can doleful notes?.
  • Time, cruel time.
Thomas Campion (1567 – 1620)
  • Author of light.
Thomas Tallis (c.1505 – 1585)
  • When shall my sorrowful sighing slack.
Edward Collard (England, fl.1598)
  • Go from my window.
John Bull (c.1562 – 1628)
  • English Toy.
  • Irish Toy.
Anonymous (England, s. XVI)
  • Farewell the Bliss.

Total Time: 62’46

Recorded in De Duif (Amsterdam, April 2009).

Sound and Production: José Mª Martín Valverde.

Postproduction: Paul Leenhouts/José Mª Martín Valverde.

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Descripción

A noble noyse of musicke

Vocal & Instrumental Master Works of the English Renaissance

When King Henry VIII moved from Greenwich to Windsor in 1510, the author Raphael Holinshed describes the young monarch in his chronicles ‘exercising himselfe dailie in shooting, singing, dansing, wrestling, casting of the bare, plaieing at the recorders, flute, virginals, in setting of songs, and making of ballads’. Lute, cittern, virginal, organ and recorder seem to be the main instruments from which the existence of English chamber music can be determined. Henry VIII, who owned seventy-six recorders alone near his death, introduced the fashionable Italian practise of having complete consorts of instruments.

In the theatre, where consort music was often played, instrumentation would in many cases be characterized by the symbolic associations of particular instruments. Stringed instruments represented harmony and agreement; reed instruments were often called for in connection with evil signs; the soft sound of flutes or recorders, sometimes referred to as ‘still music’, tended to symbolize death. In The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, William Shakespeare is referring to the recorder.

In Act III – Scene II, we find the following dialogue between Hamlet and Guildenstern:

HAMLET:                 O, the recorders! Let me see one. Will you play upon this pipe?
GUILDENSTERN:   My lord, I cannot.
HAMLET:                 I pray you.                
GUILDENSTERN:   Believe me, I cannot. I know no touch of it, my lord.
HAMLET:                 ‘Tis as easy as lying: govern these ventages with your fingers and thumb, give it breath with your mouth, and it will discourse most eloquent music. Look you, these are the stops.    
GUILDENSTERN:   But these cannot I command to any utterance of harmony; I have not the skill.            
HAMLET:                 Why, look you now, how unworthy a thing you make of me! You would play upon me; you would seem to know my stops; you would pluck out the heart of my mystery; you would sound me from my lowest note to the top of my compass: and there is much music, excellent voice, in this little organ; yet cannot you make it speak. ‘Sblood, do you think I am easier to be played on than a pipe? Call me what instrument you will, though you can fret me, yet you cannot play upon me.

In his encyclopedia Syntagma Musicum III, the German composer and organist Michael Praetorius showed that the Englisch Consort could be made up of a great variety of different instruments. His descriptions give evidence to the fame of such ensembles in Europe in the early 17th century. The expression ‘full consort’ is found occasionally in Elizabethan literature, for example in a passage from the masque The Lady of May (1578) written by the aristocrat and poet Sir Philip Sidney; ‘the shepheards and forresters made a full consort of their cornets and recorders’. The term ‘broken music’ appears to be associated with music for mixed consort, as may be seen in a description of a piece of an entertainment, performed for Queen Elizabeth at Norwich in 1578 : ‘A noble noyse of Musicke of al kind of instruments, severally to be sounded and played upon; and at one time they should be sounded all togither, that mighte serve for a consorte of broken Musicke’. Queen Elizabeth herself was a skillful player of both the lute and the virginal. She said that she never played for performance, ‘but only to shun melancholy.’ It was thought that the virginal was named after Elizabeth, the ‘Virgin Queen’, or even the name being a reference to the most common players of the instrument – young women. The Quaker and musician Solomon Eccles (1618-1683) notes that ‘to teach men’s daughters on the virginal is as harmless a calling as any man can follow.’

As it was, contemporary musicians and writers all agreed upon the sweetness of English vocalists. The highest praise was reserved for the music heard at the city of Exeter, for its ‘rich and lofty’ organ, for ‘the viols and other sweet instruments’ and for the ‘tunable voices’ all of which in consort made ‘a melodious and heavenly harmony, able to ravish the hearers’ ears’. ‘Sweetness’ was certainly considered to be a primary component of any satisfying performance. When the Duke of Württemberg visited St. George’s Chapel, Windsor in 1592, he was much impressed with a little boy who sang so sweetly to the accompaniment of all sorts of wind instruments:

‘Es sang auch ein kleines Knäblein so lieblich darein, und colorirt dermassen mit seinem Zünglein, dass es wundersam zuhören …’

The famous lutenist John Dowland emphasizes the same point in his translation of Musicae activae micrologus (Leipzig, 1517) written by the German theorist Andreas Ornithoparcus. Published in 1609 as Micrologus, or Introduction containing the Art of singing, Dowland says; ‘Let every singer take heed, lest he begin too loud, braying like an ass; … for God is not pleased with loud cries, but with lovely sounds … The uncomely gaping of the mouth, and ungraceful motion of the body, is a sign of a mad singer’.

The sixteenth century was a period that reveled in cosmic harmony, and music was at the centre of this magic. The occult force of musical modes reflected and reinforced the natural harmonies of the planets; it was a terrestrial manifestation of the stars and the perfection of the entire cosmic system. The physician Robert Fludd (1574-1637) explained music’s healing powers through a mechanism based on astrological medicine. Just as a string plucked on one lute could make the corresponding string on another vibrate in sympathy, there was also sympathy – or invisible interaction – between man and God’s creation, mediated by music. People believed that an individual’s physical and emotional state was a product of a unique combination of the four bodily humours; blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. In health, these existed in harmonious accord. However, if any imbalance disturbed this equilibrium, disease would follow. Theories were established that music produced its medicating effect by stimulating animal spirits which were believed to reside within the brain and which flowed through the nerves creating a positive vibratory effect.

The term ‘melancholy’ originates from the ancient Greek melas (black) and chole (gall). The Greeks believed that it was bile in the body that produced the despair and depression that so characterized the poets and artists of their time. In 1621, the scholar and clergyman Robert Burton wrote his Anatomy of Melancholy, the first systematic review on the subject. In the Galenic medical tradition, melancholy (because of its cold and dry qualities) was considered harmful to life. However, Aristotelian physiology associated melancholy with heightened imaginative and intellectual powers. As Galenic and Aristotelian teachings were both existent in the Renaissance, there was some confusion about the true nature of melancholy, both as a disease and an identity.

Información adicional

Artista

The Royal Wind Music

Estilo

Renaissance

Interpretación

Flutes

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A noble noyse of musicke

7,00


A Noble Noyse of Musicke

Vocal & Instrumental Master Works of the English Renaissance.
The Royal Wind Music.

Director: Paul Leenhouts

Repertorio

John Bull (c.1562 – 1628)
  • In Nomine IV.
Thomas Tallis (c.1505 – 1585)
  • Iam Lucis Orto Sidere.
  • John Redford.
  • O Lux Beata Trinitas.
Richard Allison (c.1560 – c.1610)
  • Quadran Pavan.
Anónimo (Inglaterra, s. XVI)
  • In Paradise.
  • I love unloved.
William Mure of Rowallan (1594 – 1657)
  • Kathrein Bairdie.
  • Gypsies Lilt.
  • Ouer the dek davie.
  • Corn gaird [es].
William Byrd (1543 – 1623)
  • Fantasia I a6.
  • Ave Verum Corpus.
Antony Holborne (c.1545 – 1602)
  • Galliard The teares of the muses.
John Coprario (c.1570 – 1626)
  • Fortune and Glory.
John Danyel (1564 – c.1626)
  • Can doleful notes?.
  • Time, cruel time.
Thomas Campion (1567 – 1620)
  • Author of light.
Thomas Tallis (c.1505 – 1585)
  • When shall my sorrowful sighing slack.
Edward Collard (England, fl.1598)
  • Go from my window.
John Bull (c.1562 – 1628)
  • English Toy.
  • Irish Toy.
Anónimo (Inglaterra. s. XVI)
  • Farewell the Bliss.

Duración total: 62’46

Grabado en De Duif (Amsterdam, Abril 2009). Toma de Sonido y Producción: José Mª Martín Valverde. Postproducción: Paul Leenhouts/José Mª Martín Valverde.

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SKU: MPC-0118 Categorías: , ,

Descripción

A noble noyse of musicke

Vocal & Instrumental Master Works of the English Renaissance

En 1510, cuando Enrique VIII de Inglaterra trasladó la corte de Greenwich a Windsor, el escritor Raphael Holinshed contaba en sus crónicas que el joven monarca ‘practica cada día el tiro con arco, el canto, la danza, la lucha, el lanzamiento de barra; toca las flautas dulces, la flauta travesera y el virginal; compone canciones y escribe baladas.’ El laúd, la cítara, el virginal, el órgano y la flauta de pico son los principales instrumentos que atestiguan la práctica de la música de cámara en Inglaterra. Enrique VIII, que poseía setenta y seis flautas dulces poco antes de morir, introdujo en Inglaterra la moda italiana de tocar con familias completas de instrumentos.

En el siglo XVI era frecuente oír conjuntos musicales en el teatro. En muchos casos, la instrumentación se escogía en función de las connotaciones simbólicas asociadas a cada instrumento. Los instrumentos de cuerda simbolizaban armonía y concordia, los de lengüeta solían relacionarse con la maldad y sus expresiones; el suave sonido de las flautas dulces o traveseras, a veces descrito como ‘música callada’ (still music), usualmente representaba la muerte.

En La Tragedia de Hamlet, Príncipe de Dinamarca, William Shakespeare se refiere a la flauta dulce. En el Acto III, Escena II, Hamlet y Guildenstern dialogan:
HAMLET: ¡Oh, las flautas dulces! Déjame ver una. ¿Tocarías esta flauta para mí?
GUILDENSTERN: Señor, no sabría.
HAMLET: Te lo ruego.
GUILDENSTERN: Creedme, no puedo. No sé tocar, señor.
HAMLET: Es tan fácil como mentir: cubre estos orificios con los dedos y el pulgar, dale aliento con la boca, y emitirá música elocuentísima. Mira, estos son los registros.
GUILDENSTERN: Pero no podré obtener de ellos armonía ninguna, me falta destreza.
HAMLET: ¡Fíjate en qué poca estima me tienes! A mí sí que podrías hacerme sonar, parece que conoces mis registros, podrías arrancar mis secretos más íntimos, me harías sonar desde la nota más grave al registro más agudo. Y hay mucha música, excelentes sonidos, en este pequeño órgano, pero no consigues hacerlo sonar. ¿Acaso crees que soy más fácil de tocar que una flauta? Dame el nombre del instrumento que quieras: podrás inquietarme, pero no me harás sonar.

En su enciclopedia Syntagma Musicum III, el compositor y organista alemán Michael Praetorius explica que el ‘conjunto inglés’ (Englisch Consort) podía constar de una gran variedad de instrumentos. Sus descripciones evidencian la popularidad de estos conjuntos en Europa a principios del siglo XVII. La expresión ‘conjunto completo’ (full consort) aparece ocasionalmente en la literatura isabelina, por ejemplo en un pasaje de la farsa The Lady of May (1578), del poeta y aristócrata Sir Philip Sidney: ‘los pastores y los habitantes de los bosques crearon un consort completo con sus cornetas y flautas dulces.’ El término ‘consort dividido’ (broken consort) solía designar un conjunto de diversos instrumentos, como se puede deducir de la descripción de un espectáculo presentado ante la Reina Isabel en Norwich en 1578: ‘Un noble sonido musical de toda clase de instrumentos, que se han de tocar separadamente, si bien de vez en cuando deben sonar todos juntos, creando un conjunto de música dividida.’ La misma Reina Isabel tocaba hábilmente el laúd y el virginal. En sus propias palabras, la Reina nunca tocaba para otros, sólo ‘para combatir la melancolía’. Se piensa que el virginal recibió su nombre en honor a Isabel, la ‘Reina Virgen’. O quizás el nombre se refiera a las intérpretes más comunes de este instrumento: las doncellas. El músico Solomon Eccles (1618-1683) apunta que ‘enseñar a las hijas de los señores a tocar el virginal es la vocación más inofensiva que un hombre puede seguir.’

Los músicos y escritores de la época coincidían en su aprecio de la dulzura (sweetnsess) de los vocalistas ingleses. Las mayores alabanzas se las llevaba la música de la ciudad de Exeter, por su órgano ‘rico y sublime’, por ‘las violas y otros dulcísimos instrumentos’ y por las ‘armoniosas voces’, que formaban juntos ‘una melodiosa y celestial armonía, capaz de embelesar a cualquier oyente’. La dulzura (sweetness) era uno de los componentes esenciales de una interpretación satisfactoria. Cuando el Duque de Württemberg visitó la Capilla de San Jorge (Windsor) en 1592, le impresionó enormemente un muchacho que cantaba acompañado de un conjunto de instrumentos de viento: ‘había también un niño pequeño que cantaba tan dulcemente, y adornaba la música de tal forma con su pequeña lengua, que era maravilloso escucharlo…’

El famoso laudista John Dowland enfatizó este mismo aspecto en su traducción de Musicae activae micrologus (Leipzig, 1517), del teórico alemán Andreas Ornithoparcus. En la traducción, publicada en 1609 como Micrologus, or Introduction containing the Art of singing, Dowland escribe que ‘todo cantante debe tener la precaución de no comenzar demasiado fuerte, rebuznando como un asno (…), pues a Dios no le placen los gritos, sino los sonidos hermosos… abrir la boca feamente y mover el cuerpo sin elegancia son signos de que estamos ante un cantante de poco juicio…’

Información adicional

Estilo

Renacimiento

Interpretación

Flauta

Artista

The Royal Wind Music